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Based on Merriam-Webster's Collegiate® Dictionary
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adjective..used to qualify a.noun; good, every, mimic, etc. (good vehicle; every bird; mimic a clown)

adverb..used to modify a verb, adjective or other adverb by expressing time, place manner, degree, cause, etc.; (she is alluringly dressed)

antonym..a word having a meaning opposite to that of another word (the word wet is an antonym of the word dry)

conjugate, conjugated, conjugating, conjugates-transitive verbs
Grammar..to inflect (a verb) in its forms for distinctions such as number, person, voice, mood, and tense
conjugation-noun
the inflection of a particular verb; a presentation of the complete set of inflected forms of a verb

conjunction..a part of speech such as and, but, as, and because that serves to connect words, phrases, clauses, or sentences

conjunctive-adjective
joining; connective; joined together; combined (the conjunctive focus of political opposition); 
Grammar..of, relating to, or being a conjunction; serving to connect elements of meaning and construction within sentences, as and and since, or between sentences, as therefore

copula..a.verb, such as a form of 'be' or 'seem', that identifies the predicate of a sentence with the subject; also called linking verb; the word or set of words that serves as a link between the subject and predicate of a proposition-(a statement in which the subject is affirmed or denied by the predicate)
copular-adjective

enclitic..a word or particle that has no independent accent and forms an accentual and sometimes also graphemic unit with the preceding word; forming an accentual unit with the preceding word, and thus having no independent accent (in Give 'em the works, the pronoun 'em is an enclitic)

indefinite pronoun..a pronoun, such as English any or some, that does not specify the identity of its object

infinitive..a verb form that functions as a substantive while retaining certain verbal characteristics, such as modification by adverbs, and that in English may be preceded by to, as in To go willingly is to show strength or We want him to work harder, or may also occur without to, as in She had them read the letter or We may finish today; split infinitive An infinitive verb form with an element, usually an adverb, interposed between to and the verb form, as in to boldly go.

inflected form..to change the form of a word, signaling change in tense, voice, mood, person, gender, number or case

mood
A set of verb forms or inflections used to indicate the speaker's attitude toward the factuality or likelihood of the action or condition expressed. 

In English the indicative mood is used to make factual statements, the subjunctive mood to indicate doubt or unlikelihood, and the imperative mood to express a command.

noun..words which name things boy is a noun, so is water and truth, etc.
(also see pronoun)

collective noun..a noun that denotes a collection of persons or things regarded as a unit

participle
Grammar a form of a verb that in some languages, such as English, can function independently as an adjective, as the past participle-baked-in 'We had some baked beans', and is used with an auxiliary verb to indicate tense, aspect, or voice, as the past participle-baked-in the passive sentence 'The beans were baked too long.'

The 'dangling participle' is quite common in speech, where it often passes unremarked; but its use in writing can lead to unintentional absurdities, as in 'He went to watch his horse take a turn around the track carrying a copy of the breeders' guide under his arm.' 

Even when the construction occasions no ambiguity, it is likely to distract the reader, who will ordinarily be operating on the assumption that a participle or other modifying phrase will be associated with the noun.phrase that is immediately adjacent to it.

Thus the sentence 'Turning the corner, the view was quite different', would be better rewritten as 'The view was quite different when we turned the corner', or 'Turning the corner, we saw a different view.'

A number of expressions originally derived from active participles are now well established as prepositions of a kind, and these may be used freely to introduce phrases that are not associated with the immediately adjacent noun phrase. Such expressions include concerning, considering, failing, granting, judging by, and speaking of. Thus one may write 'Speaking of politics, the elections have been postponed' or 'Considering the hour, it is surprising that he arrived at all'.

past participle
a verb form indicating past or completed action or time that is used as a verbal adjective in phrases such as 'baked beans' and 'finished' and with auxiliaries to form the passive-voice or perfect and pluperfect-tenses in constructions such as 'She had baked the beans' and 'The work was finished'. Also called perfect participle.

particle
Grammar, Linguistics..an uninflected item that has grammatical function but does not clearly belong to one of the major parts of speech, such as up in look up or to in English infinitives; in some systems of grammatical analysis, any short function word, including articles, prepositions, and conjunctions

grammar.noun
the study of how words and their component parts combine to form sentences; the study of structural relationships in language or in a language, sometimes including pronunciation, meaning, and linguistic history; the system of inflections, syntax and word formation of a language; the system of rules implicit in a language, viewed as a mechanism for generating all sentences possible in that language

dative.adjective
of, relating to, or being the grammatical case that in some Indo-European languages, such as Latin and Russian, as well as in some non-Indo-European languages, marks the recipient of action and is used with prepositions or other function words corresponding in meaning to English to and for
dative.noun
the dative case; a word or form in the dative case; from datus, past participle of dare, to give
datively.adverb

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